Petrofabric: Israel-Palestinian Authority/Southern Coast/alluvial clay/rounded sand and angular silt quartz

Name, Origin, & Material

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Israel-Palestinian Aut...

Israel-Palestinian Aut...

General Information

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These clays can readily be associated with (dark) brown alluvial soils (Dan et al. 1975; Wieder and Gvirtzman 1999: 233–234; Brady and Weil 2002: 100–102) of the southern Coastal Plain of Israel. While such soils also occur inland, the non-plastic inclusions in the samples clearly point to the (southern) littoral origin of this fabric group. As with the coastal loess (see Petro-fabric 31) this is indicated by the abundance of beach sand; by the high frequency and, often considerable grain size of heavy minerals and feldspars; and by the scarcity of calcareous rock fragments. The high component of aeolian silt, paired with beach sand in a bimodal texture, is a general characteristic of southern coastal clays.

This i...


Bowl
Tel Jemmeh
1800 BCE - 1650 BCE
Middle Bronze Age II


Bowl
Tel Jemmeh
1400 BCE - 1200 BCE
Late Bronze Age II


Bowl
Ashkelon
1300-1200 BCE
Late Bronze Age III


Transport amphora
Caesarea Maritima
6th - 7th c. CE
Byzantine, Early Islamic - Umayyad/Abbasid/Fatimid

Break Photos  30

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Bowl
Tel Jemmeh
1200 BCE - 1000 BCE
Iron Age I


Bowl
Tel Jemmeh
1800 BCE - 1650 BCE
Middle Bronze Age II


Bowl
Tel Jemmeh
1400 BCE - 1200 BCE
Late Bronze Age II


Amphora
Tell Qasile
10th to mid 9th c. BCE
Iron Age IIA

Petrographic Samples  45

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Iron Age I

Magnification:
Polarized Light?
XPL




Iron Age IIC

Magnification:
Polarized Light?
XPL




End of 12th to 11th c. BCE

Magnification:
X50
Polarized Light?
XPL




End of 12th to 11th c. BCE

Magnification:
X50
Polarized Light?
XPL

Description

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This petrographic group includes dark reddish-brown to dark brown, non-calcareous, silty clays. The matrix is non-active, nearly opaque (isotropic). The silt component consists mainly of (angular) quartz (8–15% of the slide area), accompanied by a considerable quantity of heavy minerals (hornblende, pyroxene and especially biotite) and feldspars (plagioclase, microcline) that also appear in fine to medium sand size (heavy minerals: up to 160 µm; feldspars: up to 260 µm).


The predominant non-plastic component is rounded to sub-rounded, fine to coarse quartz sand, forming 7–10% of the slide area. Grains have an average size of 250–320 µm. Occasional coarse grains (up to 900 µm) appear in virtually all samples. In several cases the quartz is strained (undulose extinction, subgrain re-crystallization).


Rare inclusions are calcareous sand (mainly rounded, micritic limestone), which mostly forms less than 1% of the slide area, and the exceptional angular chert. Kurkar and marine biogenic inclusions (shells) also occur.

These clays can readily be associated with (dark) brown alluvial soils (Dan et al. 1975; Wieder and Gvirtzman 1999: 233–234; Brady and Weil 2002: 100–102) of the southern Coastal Plain of Israel. While such soils also occur inland, the non-plastic inclusions in the samples clearly point to the (southern) littoral origin of this fabric group. As with the coastal loess (see Petro-fabric 31) this is indicated by the abundance of beach sand; by the high frequency and, often conside...

Associated Wares/Ware Families

750 BCE - 650 BCE

Iron Age IIB, Iron Age IIC


7th c. CE

Early Islamic - Umayyad/Abbasid/Fatimid


Associated Kilns/Workshops

Site Distribution

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Caesarea Maritima (Israel/Central Coastal Plain)

Kfar Menahem (Israel/Shephelah)

Khirbet Qeiyafa (Israel/Shephelah)

Megiddo (Israel/Jezreel Valley)

Tel Azekah (Israel/Shephelah)

Tel Miqne/Ekron (Israel/Shephelah)

Tel Qashish (Israel/Jezreel Valley)

Tel Qiri (Israel/Jezreel Valley)

Tell Qasile (Israel/Central Coastal Plain)

Bibliography

  1. Mario A.S. Martin. "The Provenance of Philistine Pottery in Northern Canaan, with a Focus on the Jezreel Valley" Tel Aviv 44 (2) (2017), 193–231 , Figure Supplementary 1, PG2.

Discussion/Acknowledgements