Periods

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Name Location Start Date End Date Actions
Early Cypriot Cyprus -2300 -1950
Roman Jordan -63 324
Pottery Neolithic A Israel -6000 -5000
Late Roman/Early Byzantine Cyprus 330 647
Achaemenid Persian Israel -539 -332
Pottery Neolithic B Israel -5000 -4500
Pottery Neolithic B Jordan -5000 -4500
Middle Chalcolithic Cyprus -3400 -2700
Early Roman Egypt -31 135
Frankish/Ayyubid Israel 1099 1291
Hasmonean Israel -167 -37
Herodian Israel -37 70
Ottoman Israel 1516 1917
Late Cypriot III Cyprus -1200 -1050
Roman Cyprus -30 330
Predynastic Egypt -6000 -3150
Early Chalcolithic Cyprus -4000 -3400
Chalcolithic Israel -4500 -3500
Early Dynastic Egypt -3150 -2663
Philia Cyprus -2400 -2300
Old Kingdom Egypt -2663 -2181
First Intermediate Period Egypt -2181 -2040
Intermediate Bronze Age Israel -2200 -2000
Late Roman Egypt 250 330
Middle Kingdom Egypt -2040 -1782
Second Intermediate Period Egypt -1782 -1570
Late Cypriot II A-B Cyprus -1450 -1325
Early Byzantine Turkey 324 900
New Kingdom Egypt -1570 -1070
Middle Bronze Age Syria -2000 -1500
Iron Age IB Israel -1100 -1000
Iron Age IIA Israel -1000 -900
Neo-Babylonian Period Israel -586 -539
Late Period Egypt -525 -332
Late Byzantine Cyprus 965 1191
Middle Roman Egypt 135 250
Frankish Cyprus 1191 1489
Venetian Cyprus 1489 1571
Middle Roman Israel 132 250
Late Bronze Age II Israel -1400 -1300
Ottoman Cyprus 1571 1878
Cypro-Geometric I Cyprus -1050 -950
Cypro-Geometric II Cyprus -950 -900
Early Islamic - Umayyad/Abbasid Israel 638 1099
Cypro-Archaic II Cyprus -600 -480
Cypro-Classical I Cyprus -480 -400
Cypro-Classical II Cyprus -400 -310
Pottery Neolithic Jordan -6000 -4500
Early Bronze Age I Israel -3500 -3000
Late Hellenistic/Hellenistic II Cyprus -150 -30
Late Cypriot IIC Cyprus -1325 -1200
Middle Cypriot I-II Cyprus -1950 -1750
Cypro-Archaic I Cyprus -800 -600
Roman Israel -37 324
Early Hellenistic Israel -332 -225
Late Hellenistic Israel -130 -37
Byzantine Israel 324 638
Arab Conflict/Co-Regency Cyprus 647 965
Early Islamic Egypt 641 1250
Late Chalcolithic Cyprus -2700 -2400
Middle Cypriot III Cyprus -1750 -1550
Cypro-Geometric III Cyprus -900 -800
Iron Age II-III Turkey -850 -547
Archaic Turkey -750 -500
Hellenistic I Cyprus -310 -150
Early Bronze Age II Israel -3000 -2700
Early Bronze Age III Israel -2700 -2200
Early Bronze Age IV Israel -2200 -2000
Middle Bronze Age I Israel -2000 -1800
Middle Bronze Age II Israel -1800 -1650
Middle Bronze Age III Israel -1650 -1500
Late Bronze Age I Israel -1500 -1400
Iron Age I Israel -1200 -1000
Iron Age IIB Israel -900 -700
Iron Age IIC Israel -700 -586
Early Bronze Age IV Jordan -2200 -2000
Middle Bronze Age I Jordan -2000 -1800
Middle Bronze Age II Jordan -1800 -1650
Middle Bronze Age III Jordan -1650 -1500
Late Bronze Age I Jordan -1500 -1400
Iron Age I Jordan -1200 -1000
Middle Bronze Age Israel -2000 -1500
Achaemenid Persian Lebanon -539 -332
Byzantine Jordan 324 638
Byzantine Lebanon 324 638
Pottery Neolithic B Syria -5000 -4500
Pottery Neolithic A Lebanon -6000 -5000
Early Hellenistic Jordan -332 -167
Frankish/Ayyubid Jordan 1099 1291
Frankish/Ayyubid Lebanon 1099 1291
Hasmonean Jordan -167 -37
Herodian Jordan -37 70
Ottoman Jordan 1516 1917
Ottoman Lebanon 1516 1917
Late Hellenistic Jordan -167 -63
Cypro-Archaic Cyprus -800 -480
Late Roman Jordan 132 324
Late Roman Lebanon 250 324
Middle Roman Jordan 132 250
Middle Roman Lebanon 138 250
Neo-Babylonian Period Lebanon -586 -539
Cypro-Geometric Cyprus -1050 -800
Pottery Neolithic Syria -6000 -4500
Iron Age Syria -1200 -586
Iron Age IIB Jordan -900 -700
Iron Age IIC Jordan -700 -586
Late Bronze Age II Jordan -1400 -1300
Early Roman/Nabatean Jordan -63 132
Roman Lebanon -63 324
Chalcolithic Lebanon -4500 -3500
Chalcolithic Syria -4500 -3500
Intermediate Bronze Age Lebanon -2200 -2000
Iron Age IIA Jordan -1000 -900
Iron Age IIA Lebanon -1000 -900
Neo-Babylonian Period Jordan -586 -539
Late Bronze Age II Lebanon -1400 -1300
Late Bronze Age II Syria -1400 -1300
Early Bronze Age I Lebanon -3500 -3000
Early Bronze Age II Lebanon -3000 -2700
Early Bronze Age III Lebanon -2700 -2200
Early Bronze Age IV Lebanon -2200 -2000
Late Cypriot II Cyprus -1450 -1200
Early Hellenistic Lebanon -332 -225
Middle Bronze Age I Lebanon -2000 -1800
Middle Hellenistic Syria -225 -150
Middle Bronze Age II Lebanon -1800 -1650
Early Archaic Turkey -750 -650
Late Hellenistic Lebanon -130 -63
Early Islamic - Umayyad/Abbasid Jordan 638 1099
Early Islamic - Umayyad/Abbasid Lebanon 638 1099
Early Hellenistic Cyprus -310 -225
Middle Hellenistic Cyprus -225 -150
Middle Bronze Age III Lebanon -1650 -1500
Late Bronze Age I Lebanon -1500 -1400
Iron Age IIC Lebanon -700 -586
Early Bronze Age I Syria -3500 -3000
Early Bronze Age I Jordan -3500 -3000
Early Bronze Age II Jordan -3000 -2700
Early Bronze Age III Jordan -2700 -2200
Early Bronze Age II Syria -3000 -2700
Middle Bronze Age I Syria -2000 -1800
Middle Bronze Age II Syria -1800 -1650
Middle Bronze Age III Syria -1650 -1500
Iron Age IIC Syria -700 -586
Iron Age I Lebanon -1200 -1000
Neo-Babylonian Period Syria -586 -539
Achaemenid Persian Jordan -539 -332
Achaemenid Persian Syria -539 -332
Byzantine Syria 324 638
Byzantine Turkey 324 1453
Pottery Neolithic Cyprus -4600 -4000
Pottery Neolithic A Jordan -6000 -5000
Pottery Neolithic A Syria -6000 -5000
Early Hellenistic Syria -332 -200
Early Hellenistic Turkey -333 -235
Fatimid/Ayyubid Egypt 969 1250
Iron Age II Turkey -850 -700
Iron Age III Turkey -700 -547
Early Roman Lebanon -63 138
Early Roman Syria -63 138
Early Islamic - Umayyad/Abbasid/Tulunid Egypt 656 969
Late Archaic Turkey -550 -500
Iron Age I Turkey -1200 -850
Frankish/Ayyubid Syria 1099 1291
Middle Archaic Turkey -650 -550
Ottoman Turkey 1453 1922
Ottoman Syria 1516 1917
Early Islamic - Umayyad/Abbasid Syria 638 1099
Late Roman Israel 132 324
Late Roman Syria 250 324
Late Roman Turkey 250 324
Pottery Neolithic Turkey -6900 -6400
Chalcolithic Jordan -4500 -3500
Chalcolithic Turkey -6400 -3000
Intermediate Bronze Age Jordan -2200 -2000
Early Bronze Age Turkey -3000 -2000
Middle Bronze Age Turkey -2000 -1600
Late Bronze Age Turkey -1600 -1200
Third Intermediate Period Egypt -1069 -525
Middle Roman Syria 138 250
Middle Roman Turkey 138 250
Early Bronze Age Syria -3500 -2000
Later Islamic - Fatimid/Mamluk Israel 1291 1516
Later Islamic - Fatimid/Mamluk Jordan 1291 1516
Later Islamic - Fatimid/Mamluk Lebanon 1291 1516
Later Islamic - Fatimid/Mamluk Syria 1291 1516
Early Roman Israel -37 132
Late Hellenistic Syria -150 -63
Late Hellenistic/Early Roman I Turkey -160 -31
Middle Hellenistic Turkey -235 -160
Hellenistic/Ptolemaic Egypt -332 -31
Iron Age IIB Lebanon -900 -700
Early Bronze Age III Syria -2700 -2200
Early Bronze Age IV Syria -2200 -2000
Iron Age I Syria -1200 -1000
Iron Age IIA Syria -1000 -900
Iron Age IIB Syria -900 -700
Intermediate Bronze Age Syria -2200 -2000
Late Bronze Age I Syria -1500 -1400
Early Roman II Turkey -31 138
Late Bronze Age Syria -1500 -1200
Late Cypriot Cyprus -1500 -1050
Roman Syria -63 324
Hellenistic Lebanon -332 -63
Mamluk Egypt 1250 1517
Late Bronze Age III Israel -1300 -1200
Late Bronze Age III Lebanon -1300 -1200
Classical Turkey -500 -333
Hellenistic Syria -332 -63
Hellenistic Jordan -332 -63
Ottoman Egypt 1517 1914
Late Bronze Age III Jordan -1300 -1200
Late Bronze Age III Syria -1300 -1200
Geometric Turkey -900 -750
Late Bronze Age I Turkey -1600 -1450
Late Bronze Age II Turkey -1450 -1300
Late Bronze Age III Turkey -1300 -1200
Early Hellenistic/Ptolemaic Egypt -332 -200
Pottery Neolithic B Lebanon -5000 -4500
British Protectorate/British Cyprus Cyprus 1878 1960
Iron Age II Israel -1000 -700
Late Hellenistic/Ptolemaic Egypt -200 -30
Middle Roman Cyprus 150 330
Pottery Neolithic Israel -6000 -4500
Middle Hellenistic Israel -225 -130
Late Cypriot IIIA Cyprus -1200 -1100
Late Cypriot IIIB Cyprus -1100 -1050
Byzantine Egypt 330 641
Middle Hellenistic Lebanon -225 -130
Late Bronze Age Israel -1500 -1200
Early Islamic Turkey 900 1100
Early Medieval Turkey 1100 1453
Late Cypriot I Cyprus -1550 -1450
Iron Age Israel -1200 -586
Achaemenid Persian Turkey -547 -333
Iron Age IA Israel -1200 -1100
Roman Turkey -133 324
Hellenistic Cyprus -330 -31
Early Bronze Age Israel -3500 -2000
Cypro-Classical Cyprus -480 -310
Early Roman Cyprus -30 150
Hellenistic Israel -332 -37
Hellenistic Turkey -333 -133
Roman Egypt 31 330