Periods

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Period Category Name Location Start Date End Date Actions
Early Islamic/Early Medieval Early Islamic - Umayyad/Abbasid/Fatimid Israel 638 1099
Roman Roman Jordan -63 324
Neolithic Pottery Neolithic A Israel -6000 -5000
Early Bronze Age III Israel -2700 -2500
Persian/Classical Achaemenid Persian Israel -539 -332
Neolithic Pottery Neolithic B Israel -5000 -4500
Neolithic Pottery Neolithic B Jordan -5000 -4500
Chalcolithic Middle Chalcolithic Cyprus -3400 -2700
Roman Early Roman Egypt -31 135
Frankish/Ayyubid Crusader-Frankish/Ayyubid/early Mamluk Israel 1099 1291
Hellenistic Hasmonean Israel -167 -37
Roman Herodian Israel -37 70
Later Islamic/Ottoman Ottoman Israel 1516 1917
Late Cypriot III Cyprus -1200 -1050
Roman Cyprus -30 330
Neolithic Predynastic Egypt -6000 -3150
Chalcolithic Early Chalcolithic Cyprus -4000 -3400
Chalcolithic Chalcolithic Israel -4500 -3500
Early Bronze Age Early Dynastic Egypt -3150 -2663
Early Bronze Age Philia Cyprus -2400 -2300
Early Bronze Age Old Kingdom Egypt -2663 -2181
Roman Late Roman Egypt 250 330
Middle Bronze Age Middle Kingdom Egypt -2040 -1782
Middle Bronze Age Second Intermediate Period Egypt -1782 -1570
Late Bronze Age Late Cypriot II A-B Cyprus -1450 -1325
Late Roman/Byzantine Early Byzantine Turkey 324 900
Late Bronze Age New Kingdom Egypt -1570 -1070
Middle Bronze Age Middle Bronze Age Syria -2000 -1500
Iron Age Iron Age IB Israel -1100 -1000
Iron Age Iron Age IIA Israel -1000 -900
Iron Age Neo-Babylonian Period Israel -586 -539
Persian/Classical Late Period Egypt -525 -332
Late Roman/Byzantine Late Byzantine Cyprus 965 1191
Roman Middle Roman Egypt 135 250
Frankish/Ayyubid Frankish Cyprus 1191 1489
Frankish/Ayyubid Venetian Cyprus 1489 1571
Roman Middle Roman Israel 132 250
Late Bronze Age Late Bronze Age II Israel -1400 -1300
Later Islamic/Ottoman Ottoman Cyprus 1571 1878
Iron Age Cypro-Geometric I Cyprus -1050 -950
Iron Age Cypro-Geometric II Cyprus -950 -900
Early Islamic/Early Medieval Co-Regency Cyprus 647 965
Iron Age Cypro-Archaic II Cyprus -600 -480
Persian/Classical Cypro-Classical I Cyprus -480 -400
Persian/Classical Cypro-Classical II Cyprus -400 -310
Neolithic Pottery Neolithic Jordan -6000 -4500
Early Bronze Age I Israel -3500 -3000
Hellenistic Late Hellenistic/Hellenistic II Cyprus -150 -30
Late Bronze Age Late Cypriot IIC Cyprus -1325 -1200
Middle Bronze Age Middle Cypriot I-II Cyprus -1950 -1750
Iron Age Cypro-Archaic I Cyprus -800 -600
Roman Israel -37 324
Hellenistic Early Hellenistic Israel -332 -225
Hellenistic Late Hellenistic Israel -130 -37
Late Roman/Byzantine Byzantine Israel 324 638
Late Roman/Byzantine Late Roman Cyprus 330 647
Early Islamic/Early Medieval Early Islamic Egypt 641 1250
Chalcolithic Late Chalcolithic Cyprus -2700 -2400
Middle Bronze Age Middle Cypriot III Cyprus -1750 -1550
Iron Age Cypro-Geometric III Cyprus -900 -800
Iron Age Iron Age II-III Turkey -850 -547
Iron Age Archaic Turkey -750 -500
Hellenistic Hellenistic I Cyprus -310 -150
Early Bronze Age II Israel -3000 -2700
Intermediate Bronze Age First Intermediate Period Egypt -2181 -2040
Intermediate Bronze Age Intermediate Bronze Age (Early Bronze Age IV) Israel -2500 -2000
Middle Bronze Age I Israel -2000 -1800
Middle Bronze Age II Israel -1800 -1650
Middle Bronze Age III Israel -1650 -1500
Late Bronze Age I Israel -1500 -1400
Iron Age I Israel -1200 -1000
Iron Age IIB Israel -900 -700
Iron Age IIC Israel -700 -586
Early Bronze Age IV Jordan -2200 -2000
Middle Bronze Age I Jordan -2000 -1800
Middle Bronze Age II Jordan -1800 -1650
Middle Bronze Age III Jordan -1650 -1500
Late Bronze Age I Jordan -1500 -1400
Early Cypriot Cyprus -2200 -1950
Early Bronze Age Early Cypriot I-II Cyprus -2200 -2100
Early Bronze Age Early Bronze I Turkey -3300 -2750
Iron Age I Jordan -1200 -1000
Middle Bronze Age Middle Bronze Age Israel -2000 -1500
Late Roman/Byzantine Byzantine Jordan 324 638
Late Roman/Byzantine Byzantine Lebanon 324 638
Neolithic Pottery Neolithic B Syria -5000 -4500
Neolithic Pottery Neolithic A Lebanon -6000 -5000
Hellenistic Early Hellenistic Jordan -332 -167
Frankish/Ayyubid Frankish/Ayyubid Jordan 1099 1291
Frankish/Ayyubid Frankish/Ayyubid Lebanon 1099 1291
Hellenistic Hasmonean Jordan -167 -37
Roman Herodian Jordan -37 70
Later Islamic/Ottoman Ottoman Jordan 1516 1917
Later Islamic/Ottoman Ottoman Lebanon 1516 1917
Hellenistic Late Hellenistic Jordan -167 -63
Iron Age Cypro-Archaic Cyprus -800 -480
Roman Late Roman Jordan 132 324
Roman Late Roman Lebanon 250 324
Roman Middle Roman Jordan 132 250
Roman Middle Roman Lebanon 138 250
Iron Age Neo-Babylonian Period Lebanon -586 -539
Iron Age Cypro-Geometric Cyprus -1050 -800
Neolithic Pottery Neolithic Syria -6000 -4500
Iron Age Iron Age Syria -1200 -586
Iron Age IIB Jordan -900 -700
Iron Age IIC Jordan -700 -586
Late Bronze Age Late Bronze Age II Jordan -1400 -1300
Roman Early Roman/Nabatean Jordan -63 132
Roman Roman Lebanon -63 324
Chalcolithic Chalcolithic Lebanon -4500 -3500
Chalcolithic Chalcolithic Syria -4500 -3500
Iron Age Iron Age IIA Jordan -1000 -900
Iron Age Iron Age IIA Lebanon -1000 -900
Iron Age Neo-Babylonian Period Jordan -586 -539
Late Bronze Age Late Bronze Age II Syria -1400 -1300
Early Bronze Age I Lebanon -3500 -3000
Early Bronze Age II Lebanon -3000 -2700
Early Bronze Age III Lebanon -2700 -2200
Early Bronze Age IV Lebanon -2200 -2000
Late Bronze Age Late Cypriot II Cyprus -1450 -1200
Hellenistic Early Hellenistic Lebanon -332 -225
Middle Bronze Age I Lebanon -2000 -1800
Middle Hellenistic Syria -225 -150
Middle Bronze Age II Lebanon -1800 -1650
Iron Age Early Archaic Turkey -750 -650
Hellenistic Late Hellenistic Lebanon -130 -63
Early Islamic/Early Medieval Early Islamic - Umayyad/Abbasid Jordan 638 1099
Early Islamic/Early Medieval Early Islamic - Umayyad/Abbasid Lebanon 638 1099
Hellenistic Early Hellenistic Cyprus -310 -225
Hellenistic Middle Hellenistic Cyprus -225 -150
Middle Bronze Age III Lebanon -1650 -1500
Late Bronze Age I Lebanon -1500 -1400
Early Bronze Age I Syria -3500 -3000
Early Bronze Age Early Bronze Age I Jordan -3500 -3000
Early Bronze Age Early Bronze Age II Jordan -3000 -2700
Early Bronze Age Early Bronze Age III Jordan -2700 -2200
Early Bronze Age II Syria -3000 -2700
Middle Bronze Age I Syria -2000 -1800
Middle Bronze Age II Syria -1800 -1650
Middle Bronze Age III Syria -1650 -1500
Iron Age IIC Syria -700 -586
Late Bronze Age Late Bronze Age II Lebanon -1400 -1175
Iron Age Iron Age I Lebanon -1175 -1000
Persian/Classical Iron Age III/Achaemenid Persian Lebanon -539 -332
Iron Age IIC Lebanon -700 -539
British Mandate Israel 1918 1948
Early Bronze Age Early Bronze II Turkey -2750 -2450
Early Bronze Age Early Bronze III Turkey -2450 -2000
Intermediate Bronze Age Intermediate Bronze Age Lebanon -2200 -2000
Iron Age Neo-Babylonian Period Syria -586 -539
Persian/Classical Achaemenid Persian Jordan -539 -332
Persian/Classical Achaemenid Persian Syria -539 -332
Late Roman/Byzantine Byzantine Syria 324 638
Late Roman/Byzantine Byzantine Turkey 324 1453
Neolithic Pottery Neolithic Cyprus -4600 -4000
Neolithic Pottery Neolithic A Jordan -6000 -5000
Neolithic Pottery Neolithic A Syria -6000 -5000
Hellenistic Early Hellenistic Syria -332 -200
Hellenistic Early Hellenistic Turkey -333 -235
Later Islamic/Ottoman Fatimid/Ayyubid Egypt 969 1250
Iron Age Iron Age II Turkey -850 -700
Iron Age Iron Age III Turkey -700 -547
Roman Early Roman Lebanon -63 138
Roman Early Roman Syria -63 138
Early Islamic/Early Medieval Early Islamic - Umayyad/Abbasid/Tulunid Egypt 656 969
Persian/Classical Late Archaic Turkey -550 -500
Iron Age Iron Age I Turkey -1200 -850
Frankish/Ayyubid Frankish/Ayyubid Syria 1099 1291
Iron Age Middle Archaic Turkey -650 -550
Later Islamic/Ottoman Ottoman Turkey 1453 1922
Later Islamic/Ottoman Ottoman Syria 1516 1917
Early Islamic/Early Medieval Early Islamic - Umayyad/Abbasid Syria 638 1099
Roman Late Roman Israel 132 324
Roman Late Roman Syria 250 324
Roman Late Roman Turkey 250 324
Later Islamic/Ottoman Middle-Late Islamic/Mamluk Israel 1250 1516
Neolithic Pottery Neolithic Turkey -6900 -6400
Chalcolithic Chalcolithic Jordan -4500 -3500
Later Islamic/Ottoman Late Mamluk-Early Ottoman Israel 1300 1600
Middle Bronze Age Middle Bronze Age Turkey -2000 -1700
Late Bronze Age Late Bronze Age Turkey -1700 -1200
Early Bronze Age Early Bronze Age Turkey -3300 -2000
Roman Middle Roman Syria 138 250
Chalcolithic Chalcolithic Turkey -6400 -3300
Intermediate Bronze Age Intermediate Bronze Age Jordan -2200 -2000
Intermediate Bronze Age Intermediate Bronze Age Syria -2200 -2000
Iron Age Third Intermediate Period/Saite Egypt -1069 -525
Roman Middle Roman Turkey 138 250
Early Bronze Age Early Bronze Age Syria -3500 -2000
Later Islamic/Ottoman Later Islamic - Fatimid/Mamluk Jordan 1291 1516
Later Islamic/Ottoman Later Islamic - Fatimid/Mamluk Lebanon 1291 1516
Later Islamic/Ottoman Later Islamic - Fatimid/Mamluk Syria 1291 1516
Roman Early Roman Israel -37 132
Hellenistic Late Hellenistic Syria -150 -63
Roman Late Hellenistic/Early Roman I Turkey -160 -31
Hellenistic Middle Hellenistic Turkey -235 -160
Hellenistic Hellenistic/Ptolemaic Egypt -332 -31
Iron Age Iron Age IIB Lebanon -900 -700
Early Bronze Age Early Bronze Age III Syria -2700 -2200
Early Bronze Age Early Bronze Age IV Syria -2200 -2000
Iron Age Iron Age I Syria -1200 -1000
Iron Age Iron Age IIA Syria -1000 -900
Iron Age Iron Age IIB Syria -900 -700
Late Bronze Age Late Bronze Age I Syria -1500 -1400
Roman Early Roman II Turkey -31 138
Late Bronze Age Late Bronze Age Syria -1500 -1200
Late Bronze Age Late Cypriot Cyprus -1500 -1050
Roman Roman Syria -63 324
Hellenistic Hellenistic Lebanon -332 -63
Later Islamic/Ottoman Mamluk Egypt 1250 1517
Late Bronze Age Late Bronze Age III Israel -1300 -1200
Late Bronze Age Late Bronze Age III Lebanon -1300 -1200
Persian/Classical Classical Turkey -500 -333
Frankish/Ayyubid Medieval Cyprus 1191 1571
Hellenistic Hellenistic Syria -332 -63
Hellenistic Hellenistic Jordan -332 -63
Later Islamic/Ottoman Ottoman Egypt 1517 1914
Late Bronze Age Late Bronze Age III Jordan -1300 -1200
Late Bronze Age Late Bronze Age III Syria -1300 -1200
Iron Age Geometric Turkey -900 -750
Late Bronze Age Late Bronze Age III Turkey -1300 -1200
Hellenistic Early Hellenistic/Ptolemaic Egypt -332 -200
Late Bronze Age Late Bronze Age I Turkey -1700 -1400
Late Bronze Age Late Bronze Age II Turkey -1400 -1300
Neolithic Pottery Neolithic B Lebanon -5000 -4500
Later Islamic/Ottoman British Protectorate/British Cyprus Cyprus 1878 1960
Iron Age Iron Age II Israel -1000 -700
Hellenistic Late Hellenistic/Ptolemaic Egypt -200 -30
Roman Middle Roman Cyprus 150 330
Neolithic Pottery Neolithic Israel -6000 -4500
Hellenistic Middle Hellenistic Israel -225 -130
Late Bronze Age Late Cypriot IIIA Cyprus -1200 -1100
Late Bronze Age Late Cypriot IIIB Cyprus -1100 -1050
Late Roman/Byzantine Byzantine Egypt 330 641
Hellenistic Middle Hellenistic Lebanon -225 -130
Late Bronze Age Late Bronze Age Israel -1500 -1200
Early Islamic/Early Medieval Early Islamic Turkey 900 1100
Later Islamic/Ottoman Early Medieval Turkey 1100 1453
Early Bronze Age Early Bronze Age Israel -3500 -2500
Late Bronze Age Late Cypriot I Cyprus -1550 -1450
Iron Age Iron Age Israel -1200 -586
Persian/Classical Achaemenid Persian Turkey -547 -333
Iron Age Iron Age IA Israel -1200 -1100
Roman Roman Turkey -133 324
Hellenistic Hellenistic Cyprus -330 -31
Persian/Classical Cypro-Classical Cyprus -480 -310
Roman Early Roman Cyprus -30 150
Hellenistic Hellenistic Israel -332 -37
Hellenistic Hellenistic Turkey -333 -133
Roman Roman Egypt 31 330